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Glass Process
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE GLASSMAKING PROCESS

NOTE: This information has been found in a file of old Club Newsletter this one from the Northern California Club, dated 1989.

The chart was compiled by one Art Edwards of Fenton Art Glass Co. ..It is certainly worthy of reprint here. Enjoy!

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE GLASSMAKING PROCESS
ACTIVITY
AT WHAT TEMPERATURE
REQUIRES HOW MUCH TIME?
Ingredients weighed and mixed
at room temperature
approx. 30 minutes
Loaded into melting furnace
approx.  2000 deg. F.
approx. 5 minutes
Melting and refining takes place
approx.  2500 deg. F.
10-35 hours,
depending on type of glass and type of furnace
A group of men make glassware.  They draw the glass from the furnace in
gobs ranging in size from 3 oz. to 90 oz. In some factories the glass flows from the furnace into forming machines on a
lower level.
approx.  2000 deg. F.
Men work 8 hour shifts
Each gob is formed into a basic shape by a man using air or mechanical force. In factories making less complicated shapes
or higher quantities, this forming is performed by machines.
approx.  2000 deg. F.
5 to 50 seconds
The basic shape is reheated and changed to the final shape.
1800 deg. F.
20 to 60 seconds
The piece is put in an annealing lehr to strengthen the glass and to cool it off.
1000 deg. F. to room temperature
1 hour to 6 hours or longer
The piece is then inspected, packaged and shipped.
room temperature
1 day to weeks
The main ingredients used and their approximate percentage of the total batch are:

Sand (SiO-2) 75%
Soda Ash (Na-2-CO-3) 15%
Lime (CaCO-3) 9%

Some manufacturers substitute potash for soda ash, and barium or borax for lime. In some opaque glasses, fluorspar and feldspar are substituted for lime.


The color controlling ingredients are mixed in with the main ingredients before melting. Some of the material used to create certain colors are:

MATERIALS
COLOR PRODUCED
Uranium
 Yellow
Cobalt
Blue
Sugar and Iron
Amber
Neodymium
Pink
Iron
Green
Gold
Red
Selenium and Cadmium
Orange
Selenium and Manganese
Crystal
Alumina and Fluorine
White
COLOR
COLORANT
Burmese
Pure gold and Uranium Oxide
Custard
Uranium Oxide
Amethyst
Manganese Dioxide
Ruby Overlay
Gold and Crystal Glass
Blue Satin
Copper Oxide
Cranberry Opalescent
Gold and Calcium Phosphates
Colonial Blue
Copper
Colonial Amber
Sugar




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